Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary <p style="text-align: justify;">Part of Royallite Global, <strong>Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies</strong> is a leading interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works across the breadths of Literatures and Cultural Studies. The journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all; authors, therefore, benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal's broad aims and scope allow researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. Each article on this particular issue has been evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to peer review.&nbsp;</p> Royallite Global en-US Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies 2707-2169 <p class="copyright-statement">This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY-NC-SA) license.</p> <p class="licensing"><strong>You are free to:</strong> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>No additional restrictions:</strong> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> Racial interference in the justice systems in John Grisham’s A Time to Kill (1989) and The Chamber (1994) https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/898 <p>Premised on the tenets of intertextuality and structuralism, this study sought to examine how racism has influenced the administration of justice in the two selected texts of John Grisham, <em>A Time to Kill</em>, and <em>The Chamber</em>. It further sought to immerse the practice of law right inside the societal space where reality is supreme so that law is understood alongside human experiences and conditions. Law as it exists as written law is one thing; it is the other to juxtapose and read these set of rules together with the situations in real life. The main objective of this study was to carry out reading of legal representation in selected fiction of John Grisham and critically analyse the influence of legal fiction on law and justice. The study established that racism available within the judicial structures affected administration of justice in the selected texts. This paper after carrying out the study established that in the American society where John Grisham’s texts are set, administration of justice was at different levels in the judicial systems interfered by socials aspects such as racism, organized crimes amongst other aspects but this paper will focus on racism.</p> Gideon Kiplangat Too Margaret Njoki Mwihia Peter Muhoro Mwangi Copyright (c) 2022 Gideon Kiplangat Too, Margaret Njoki Mwihia, Peter Muhoro Mwangi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-28 2022-09-28 4 3 Alcohol and drug abuse in fragmenting youth social identities: Analysis of selected Kenyan Fiction https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/890 <p>This study examines the problems of excessive drug abuse and addiction among the Kenyan youths as represented in young adult fiction written by Kenyans. The study is motivated by works of a few popular fiction writers of 1970’s who introduced topics such as drug abuse and addiction in their works. These topics had been considered taboo by the early African writers of the 1960s but it is only recently that the same topics have been accepted in youth fiction. This study therefore discusses these writings as pictures that reflect how life of drugs affect the identity formation of the Kenyan youth. In the process of its enquiry, the study employs postmodern literary theory because young adults show themselves as unstable figures. They embody many ambiguities and contradiction. Qualitative in nature, this study employs data obtained from close reading of the selected literary texts. It therefore comes to a conclusion that the life of addict is presented as a life on the margins of society. They are either ignored or pitied by their surroundings, with rare occurrences of helpers, while the institutions prove to be ineffective and powerless. The unfortunate endings in the novels that portray addicts as vulnerable serve as a warning to young people to avoid drugs. These novels include, Moraa Gitaa’s<em> The Shark Attack (2014),</em> Meja Mwangi’s <em>Kill Me Quick </em>(1974)<em>,</em> Elizabeth Kabui’s Was<em> Nyakeeru My Father?(2014).&nbsp;</em></p> Vincent Odhiambo Oduor Jairus Omuteche David W. Yenjela Copyright (c) 2022 Vincent Odhiambo Oduor, Jairus Omuteche, David W. Yenjela https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-09-11 2022-09-11 4 3 Discussing the subject matter of the supernatural in African literature: Old and new https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/881 <p>This essay sought to examine the supernatural as a matter in African literature discourses and the degree to which it manifests itself in the political, socio-economic, and cultural systems of Africa. In order to achieve this, the essay further investigated the significance of the supernatural in contemporary African societies thus attempting to answer the following questions: does African literature old and new (where old and new refers to the year of publication of the novels as well as setting in the novels with regard to time) make room for the supernatural subject matter? Is there a favorable or bad portrayal of supernatural belief in African literature? These questions are addressed by evaluating and interpreting selected writings (literary foreground) dealing with supernatural subjects. The essay concludes by discussing methods in which the supernatural could be portrayed in order to favorably impact African societies. </p> Faith Ben-Daniels Copyright (c) 2022 Faith Ben-Daniels https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 4 3 ‘What a man can do a woman can do’: Gender and culture in ‘Coming 2 America’ https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/858 <p>This study has investigated how gender is constructed in Eddy Murphy’s 2021 movie ‘Coming 2 America’. Four major female and three major male characters are purposively sampled for the study. Employing the literary process of characterisation, explicit and implicit ways these characters project themselves are analysed with gender construction as the focus. Findings reveal that gender construction in ‘Coming 2 America’ does not project characters stereotypically by assigning only ‘masculine’ roles and traits to male characters nor ‘feminine’ roles and traits to female characters. The study has implications for movie industries, drama groups and social media content producers such as YouTubers to be cognisant of their consciousness or lack thereof as their construction of gender can contribute to the gender equality struggle or defeat it.</p> Cosmas Rai Amenorvi Copyright (c) 2022 Cosmas Rai Amenorvi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-08-25 2022-08-25 4 3 Writing translation: On the question of ‘Writing Back’ in post-colonial translation https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/840 <p>Languages have many functional roles with regard to their social and cultural position. Hence, unless the contextualization of linguistic constructions is successfully processed, the cultural features of any community will remain inaccessible. Accordingly, many Indian and African writers have chosen the language of the colonizer as a medium of expression, for they wanted their voice to be heard outside the borders of their country and even because they are not competent enough to use their mother tongue in their writings. On this basis, their use of the colonial language is not considered as a manifestation of the French or English assimilation process which by definition stresses the superiority of the colonizer and his culture over the colonized.&nbsp; The purpose of this study is to show the extent to which the usage of the colonizer’s language reflects an act of translation, as it strives to make the experience of the local people known and readable for the colonizer. &nbsp;Said’s theory of orientalism allowed to explore the different mechanisms deployed by the colonizer to implant the idea of subordination in the minds of colonized people, especially through the imposition of his language.</p> Younes Aich Copyright (c) 2022 Younes Aich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-07-01 2022-07-01 4 3 Reframing romantic consciousness in John Donne and D. H. Lawrence’s perception of the woman in metaphysical and modern poetry https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/839 <p>This paper examines the place of the woman in Romantic thought with focus on the poetry of John Donne and D. H. Lawrence. Given that Donne and Lawrence are not “Romantic” poets in the real sense of the word but have written Romantic poems, the paper focuses on how their attitude towards the woman is Romantic in nature. Though from the Renaissance and the Modern periods respectively, their poetry articulates the rich quality of human sensibilities with the woman at the centre of this artistic experience. The reframing of Romantic consciousness in Donne and Lawrence’s poetry manifests in the poets’ conceited diction as opposed to the Romanticists’ whose imagination priced the aesthetic experience and the sublimity of untamed nature in all its ramification. Wit, conceit, syllogisms, passionate intensity, and absurd deviances are the poets’ conscious attempt in the search for unity of being. Comparative representations of the woman are drawn from the works of key Romantic figures like William Wordsworth, Lord Byron, and John Keats. The Romantic theory and Ecofeminism guide the analyses, and the discussions reveal their sensibilities towards the woman. It further unfolds how both poets’ quest for ethereal values permit them to advocate peace and spiritual growth in societies where man is regularly disconnected from his/her spiritual essence. </p> David Toh Kusi Copyright (c) 2022 David Toh Kusi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 4 3 The virtuosity of traditional Africa and the plasticity of its affects: The cross-cultural fertilization of “yela” in the Western Sahel and Savannah https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/833 <p>Throughout the poetic image and imaginative construction of the self, the <em>Yela</em> embodies a protrusive source of vindication within the intellective and creative process of understanding become an object of perception. From an ingenuous beget to a more compound whole of a convention of representation and the association of experience, the <em>Yela</em> inside the <em>Puular</em> language becomes a structural material. Thus, the constituent of conservative imagery and the colonialist dynamic influences frame an innovative eccentric variety that appraises the formation of reality, memory, and symbol. Therefore, the domain of <em>Yela</em> through its cultural and artistic body, and within its existing essentiality of <em>Gaandal</em> and <em>Demngal</em> overtakes the principles of basic linguistics and the colonialist conventional perception of productivity. In effect, the <em>Yela</em> art through the all-encompassing relation of the <em>Puular</em> language with the whole performance of time and space, emphasizes on a cosmopolitan wholesome recombination, settlement and re-appropriation of material imagination and objective reality of intellection. The foundation of intellectual and artistic image, and imaginative expression, the corresponding inventiveness of the <em>Yela</em> art, and the musical nationalism arrange move beyond comatose understanding. Therefore, the commitment of this article underlines the question of the effective temperature of the <em>Yela</em> indigenous value of imagination, and its transformative experience as regard language, sociolinguistic and ecological reflectivity, and then its emphasis on its contemporary stylistic compass of performance.</p> Souleymane Diallo Copyright (c) 2022 Souleymane Diallo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 4 3 Masking for survival: An exploration of Alex La Guma’s In the Fog of the Seasons’ End https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/820 <p>The fiction of Alex La Guma is consistently, classed as “protest” literature. This is, presumably, due to his pointed political commentary, his focus on spectacular episodes of brutality, and his conviction that the reader must do something. His novel, <em>In the Fog of the Seasons’ End</em> seems to be directed to a multiple audience. While clearly intended to raise consciousness and indignation in the non-white population of South Africa, it also clearly speaks to an international audience with less experience in the day-to-day realities of the system of apartheid. This paper therefore hopes to analyze and explain how La Guma uses the technique of masking the identity of his characters in an attempt to help them survive in a politically dangerous environment; South African apartheid era, and simultaneously respond to the harsh discriminatory policies perpetrated against the non-whites by the minority whites. The study presented to us the means by which Alex La Guma uses masking—concealing the identity of the characters, especially major characters—to enable them function in their underground movements to revolt against the apartheid regime. Most significantly, his narrative technique and characterization are what we clearly take cues from in order to understand his position for revolution.</p> Jonathan Essuman Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan Essuman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 4 3 Emerging performance spaces: Kass FM Radio Station and the expansion of the Kalenjin performance stage https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/807 <p>This study addresses the role that Kass FM through its innovations has expanded the performance stage by incorporating a big number of audiences in diverse locations in a single performance. The study argues that the radio station has afforded the performers, especially musicians, an avenue for transmission of their performance beyond the limitations of the traditional space and at the same time offering an opportunity for immediate feedback on their performance. The study thus concludes that Kass FM has expanded the traditional concept of oral performance through the employment of emerging technologies. This enables the audiences and the performers an opportunity to incorporate other emerging issues in their performances which may be brought about difficulties which may result from the particular physical location that the performer and the various audiences may find themselves in.</p> Kiprotich E. Sang Copyright (c) 2022 Kiprotich E. Sang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-05-01 2022-05-01 4 3 Gender perspectives and portrayal in Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s The River Between (1965) https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/741 <p>This study sought to investigate feminist viewpoint in Ngugi Wa Thiong'o’s <em>The River Between</em>. The novel explores the character of woman and further discusses Kenya's geographical history as well as the influence of British colonization through Muthoni. It also examines the novel's feminist elements, since the female characters are victims of African society's patriarchal system. Ngugi portrays women in in the novel from various dimensions thus a woman may be a mother, politician, socialist, educator, and family provider all at the same time. Ngugi depicts British colonization as the cause of the Kikuyu-Kenyan society's demise. The majority of his heroes are female and play important roles in the fight against tyranny and exploitation. To liberate themselves, they endeavor to shatter patriarchal obstacles and bring about reforms in their culture. Ngugi depicts the essence of a woman and illuminates the positive and bad characteristics of women in Kenyan culture. In the novel, Ngugi does not disregard the influence of colonialism on society in general and women in particular. Muthoni puts to light the predicament of women and the impoverished. <em>The River Between</em> therefore addresses the exploitation of African women based on race, class, and gender.</p> Faustina Nankuri Beauty Patience Addo Michael Akomea Isaac Anobi Asare Alberta Aseye Ama Duhoe Copyright (c) 2022 Faustina Nankuri, Beauty Patience Addo, Michael Akomea, Isaac Anobi Asare, Alberta Aseye Ama Duhoe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 2022-02-27 2022-02-27 4 3