Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary <p style="text-align: justify;">Part of Royallite Global, <strong>Hybrid Journal of Literary and Cultural Studies</strong> is a leading interdisciplinary peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research works across the breadths of Literatures and Cultural Studies. The journal has a mission to make research and knowledge accessible to all; authors, therefore, benefit from high visibility and readership for their work. The journal's broad aims and scope allow researchers to explore interconnected subject areas. Each article on this particular issue has been evaluated on its own scholarly merit and research integrity, and our expert academic editors take an objective and constructive approach to peer review.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p class="copyright-statement">This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY-NC-SA) license.</p> <p class="licensing"><strong>You are free to:</strong> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p class="licensing"><strong>No additional restrictions:</strong> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> ojwang@royalliteglobal.com (Amos O. Ojwang') okeyo@royalliteglobal.com (Geoffrey Okeyo) Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Anglophone Cameroonian literary engagement: Historical perspectives https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/983 <p>This paper focuses on the period of the 1990s onwards as it saw the emergence of a new generation of Anglophone Cameroonian writers with a different vision of what Cameroon as a reunified nation was going to be. I mainly analyse the uniqueness of Bole Butake’s and Bate Besong’s literary engagements, with a particular focus on the historical realities that inform their plays. The playwrights draw characters from the lower classes and engage them in a struggle to change their own destiny. As revolutionary playwrights, their characters are taken in a collective resistance against the marginalisation and exploitation of the people by a highly repressive regime in place. The playwrights are thus particularly interesting because their task is, to borrow from Wastberg (1988: 17), “to reshape a distorted history and portray a misjudged society honestly, without idealizing it”. Thus, in this discussion, I explore the interconnectedness between dramaturgy and politics in Cameroon by highlighting the post-reunification malaise that is resented by Anglophone Cameroonian writers in general, and in particular by Bole Butake and Bate Besong. More specifically, I endeavor to show that Bole Butake and Bate Besong are revolutionary playwrights whose dramatic engagement gestures towards the idea of nation-building project which was timidly “idealised” by the previous generation of writers. I finally seek to show how uniquely the playwrights engage with the Anglophone Problem and how they envision the Cameroonian nation within the possibilities of their dramatic engagements and representations. The chosen plays seek to offer in-depth analyses of the reunification epistemologies and also connect them with the Cameroonian institutions. There is a “horizontal colonialism” (Doh, 1993:78) tantamount to the European colonialism which obliges a dialectical perspective enabling us to understand not just the Anglophone Cameroonian history but also the post-reunification Anglophone Cameroonian literary production.</p> Audace Mbonyingingo Copyright (c) 2023 Audace Mbonyingingo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/983 Sat, 31 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Beautiful dreams: Deconstructing discourses of redemption in Darko’s Beyond the Horizon (1995), Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street (2009), Adichie’s Americanah (2013) and Mbue’s Behold the Dreamers (2016) https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/932 <p>This paper entails an analysis of how in their different particularities, Amma Darko’s <em>Beyond the Horizon</em>, Chika Unigwe’s <em>On Black Sisters’ Street</em>; Chimamanda Adichie’s <em>Americanah</em> and Imbolo Mbue’s <em>Behold the Dreamers</em> explore the underbelly of notions informing the discourse of a redemptive West for Africans located at the margins of globalisation. The analysis locates Chimamanda’s <em>Americanah </em>and Mbue’s <em>Behold the Dreamers</em> within the racialised polity in the USA, in the midst of either a global economic meltdown or individual inability to access the fruits of globalisation because of the fact of race or immigration status.&nbsp; It also explores how choicelessness in the job market in Europe informs the radical choice of persisting at the social and economic margins of Europe despite the harsh realities and outcomes in this choice. This paper demonstrates that the questions of place at particular moments in history force a revision of initial fantasy about the notions of the redemptive West.&nbsp; This textual analysis is informed by the postcolonial theory, as articulated by Robert Nichols and Homi Bhabha and their postulations on identity, ‘othering’ and ‘in-between spaces’.</p> Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura Copyright (c) 2022 Gloria Ajami Makokha, Mugo Muhia, Oluoch Obura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/932 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Racial interference in the justice systems in John Grisham’s A Time to Kill (1989) and The Chamber (1994) https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/898 <p>Premised on the tenets of intertextuality and structuralism, this study sought to examine how racism has influenced the administration of justice in the two selected texts of John Grisham, <em>A Time to Kill</em>, and <em>The Chamber</em>. It further sought to immerse the practice of law right inside the societal space where reality is supreme so that law is understood alongside human experiences and conditions. Law as it exists as written law is one thing; it is the other to juxtapose and read these set of rules together with the situations in real life. The main objective of this study was to carry out reading of legal representation in selected fiction of John Grisham and critically analyse the influence of legal fiction on law and justice. The study established that racism available within the judicial structures affected administration of justice in the selected texts. This paper after carrying out the study established that in the American society where John Grisham’s texts are set, administration of justice was at different levels in the judicial systems interfered by socials aspects such as racism, organized crimes amongst other aspects but this paper will focus on racism.</p> Gideon Kiplangat Too, Margaret Njoki Mwihia, Peter Muhoro Mwangi Copyright (c) 2022 Gideon Kiplangat Too, Margaret Njoki Mwihia, Peter Muhoro Mwangi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/898 Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Alcohol and drug abuse in fragmenting social identities among youths: Analysis of selected Kenyan fiction https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/890 <p>This study examines the problems of excessive drug abuse and addiction among the Kenyan youths as represented in young adult fiction written by Kenyans. The study is motivated by works of a few popular fiction writers of 1970’s who introduced topics such as drug abuse and addiction in their works. These topics had been considered taboo by the early African writers of the 1960s but it is only recently that the same topics have been accepted in youth fiction. This study therefore discusses these writings as pictures that reflect how life of drugs affect the identity formation of the Kenyan youth. In the process of its enquiry, the study employs postmodern literary theory because young adults show themselves as unstable figures. They embody many ambiguities and contradiction. Qualitative in nature, this study employs data obtained from close reading of the selected literary texts. It therefore comes to a conclusion that the life of addict is presented as a life on the margins of society. They are either ignored or pitied by their surroundings, with rare occurrences of helpers, while the institutions prove to be ineffective and powerless. The unfortunate endings in the novels that portray addicts as vulnerable serve as a warning to young people to avoid drugs. These novels include, Moraa Gitaa’s The Shark Attack (2014), Meja Mwangi’s Kill Me Quick (1974), Elizabeth Kabui’s Was Nyakeeru My Father?(2014).</p> Vincent Odhiambo Oduor, Jairus Omuteche, David W. Yenjela Copyright (c) 2022 Vincent Odhiambo Oduor, Jairus Omuteche, David W. Yenjela https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/890 Sun, 11 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Discussing the subject matter of the supernatural in African literature: Old and new https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/881 <p>This essay sought to examine the supernatural as a matter in African literature discourses and the degree to which it manifests itself in the political, socio-economic, and cultural systems of Africa. In order to achieve this, the essay further investigated the significance of the supernatural in contemporary African societies thus attempting to answer the following questions: does African literature old and new (where old and new refers to the year of publication of the novels as well as setting in the novels with regard to time) make room for the supernatural subject matter? Is there a favorable or bad portrayal of supernatural belief in African literature? These questions are addressed by evaluating and interpreting selected writings (literary foreground) dealing with supernatural subjects. The essay concludes by discussing methods in which the supernatural could be portrayed in order to favorably impact African societies. </p> Faith Ben-Daniels Copyright (c) 2022 Faith Ben-Daniels https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/881 Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 ‘What a man can do, a woman can do better’: Unmasking gender stereotypes and culture in ‘Coming 2 America’ https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/858 <p>This study investigates how gender is constructed in Eddie Murphy’s 2021 film ‘Coming 2 America’, the purpose of which is to unearth whether or not characters are projected stereotypically by assigning ‘male roles’ only to male characters and ‘female roles’ only to female characters. ‘Coming 2 America’ is chosen for this study because of its popularity and its being a most current film released in a COVID-19 world of 2021. Four major female and three major male characters are purposively sampled for the study. These characters are among the most prominent whose presence is felt throughout the film. Employing the literary process of characterisation, explicit and implicit ways these characters project themselves are analysed with gender construction as the focus. Findings reveal that gender construction in ‘Coming 2 America’ does not project characters stereotypically by assigning only ‘masculine’ roles and traits to male characters nor ‘feminine’ roles and traits to female characters. The study has implications for film industries, drama groups and social media content producers such as YouTubers and TikTokers to be cognisant of their consciousness or lack thereof as their construction of gender can contribute to the gender equality struggle or defeat it.</p> Cosmas Rai Amenorvi Copyright (c) 2022 Cosmas Rai Amenorvi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/858 Thu, 25 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Writing translation: On the question of ‘Writing Back’ in post-colonial translation https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/840 <p>Languages have many functional roles with regard to their social and cultural position. Hence, unless the contextualization of linguistic constructions is successfully processed, the cultural features of any community will remain inaccessible. Accordingly, many Indian and African writers have chosen the language of the colonizer as a medium of expression, for they wanted their voice to be heard outside the borders of their country and even because they are not competent enough to use their mother tongue in their writings. On this basis, their use of the colonial language is not considered as a manifestation of the French or English assimilation process which by definition stresses the superiority of the colonizer and his culture over the colonized.&nbsp; The purpose of this study is to show the extent to which the usage of the colonizer’s language reflects an act of translation, as it strives to make the experience of the local people known and readable for the colonizer. &nbsp;Said’s theory of orientalism allowed to explore the different mechanisms deployed by the colonizer to implant the idea of subordination in the minds of colonized people, especially through the imposition of his language.</p> Younes Aich Copyright (c) 2022 Younes Aich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/840 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reframing romantic consciousness in John Donne and D. H. Lawrence’s perception of the woman in metaphysical and modern poetry https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/839 <p>This paper examines the place of the woman in Romantic thought with focus on the poetry of John Donne and D. H. Lawrence. Given that Donne and Lawrence are not “Romantic” poets in the real sense of the word but have written Romantic poems, the paper focuses on how their attitude towards the woman is Romantic in nature. Though from the Renaissance and the Modern periods respectively, their poetry articulates the rich quality of human sensibilities with the woman at the centre of this artistic experience. The reframing of Romantic consciousness in Donne and Lawrence’s poetry manifests in the poets’ conceited diction as opposed to the Romanticists’ whose imagination priced the aesthetic experience and the sublimity of untamed nature in all its ramification. Wit, conceit, syllogisms, passionate intensity, and absurd deviances are the poets’ conscious attempt in the search for unity of being. Comparative representations of the woman are drawn from the works of key Romantic figures like William Wordsworth, Lord Byron, and John Keats. The Romantic theory and Ecofeminism guide the analyses, and the discussions reveal their sensibilities towards the woman. It further unfolds how both poets’ quest for ethereal values permit them to advocate peace and spiritual growth in societies where man is regularly disconnected from his/her spiritual essence. </p> David Toh Kusi Copyright (c) 2022 David Toh Kusi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/839 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The virtuosity of traditional Africa and the plasticity of its effects: The cross-cultural fertilization of “yela” in the Western Sahel and Savannah https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/833 <p>Throughout the poetic image and imaginative construction of the self, the <em>Yela</em> embodies a protrusive source of vindication within the intellective and creative process of understanding become an object of perception. From an ingenuous beget to a more compound whole of a convention of representation and the association of experience, the <em>Yela</em> inside the <em>Puular</em> language becomes a structural material. Thus, the constituent of conservative imagery and the colonialist dynamic influences frame an innovative eccentric variety that appraises the formation of reality, memory, and symbol. Therefore, the domain of <em>Yela</em> through its cultural and artistic body, and within its existing essentiality of <em>Gaandal</em> and <em>Demngal</em> overtakes the principles of basic linguistics and the colonialist conventional perception of productivity. In effect, the <em>Yela</em> art through the all-encompassing relation of the <em>Puular</em> language with the whole performance of time and space, emphasizes on a cosmopolitan wholesome recombination, settlement and re-appropriation of material imagination and objective reality of intellection. The foundation of intellectual and artistic image, and imaginative expression, the corresponding inventiveness of the <em>Yela</em> art, and the musical nationalism arrange move beyond comatose understanding. Therefore, the commitment of this article underlines the question of the effective temperature of the <em>Yela</em> indigenous value of imagination, and its transformative experience as regard language, sociolinguistic and ecological reflectivity, and then its emphasis on its contemporary stylistic compass of performance.</p> Souleymane Diallo Copyright (c) 2022 Souleymane Diallo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/833 Thu, 30 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Masking for survival: An exploration of Alex La Guma’s In the Fog of the Seasons’ End https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/820 <p>The fiction of Alex La Guma is consistently, classed as “protest” literature. This is, presumably, due to his pointed political commentary, his focus on spectacular episodes of brutality, and his conviction that the reader must do something. His novel, <em>In the Fog of the Seasons’ End</em> seems to be directed to a multiple audience. While clearly intended to raise consciousness and indignation in the non-white population of South Africa, it also clearly speaks to an international audience with less experience in the day-to-day realities of the system of apartheid. This paper therefore hopes to analyze and explain how La Guma uses the technique of masking the identity of his characters in an attempt to help them survive in a politically dangerous environment; South African apartheid era, and simultaneously respond to the harsh discriminatory policies perpetrated against the non-whites by the minority whites. The study presented to us the means by which Alex La Guma uses masking—concealing the identity of the characters, especially major characters—to enable them function in their underground movements to revolt against the apartheid regime. Most significantly, his narrative technique and characterization are what we clearly take cues from in order to understand his position for revolution.</p> Jonathan Essuman Copyright (c) 2022 Jonathan Essuman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.royalliteglobal.com/hybrid-literary/article/view/820 Mon, 30 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000