Film and the Construction of Ethnic Identity and National Difference: A Comparative Analysis of Hotel Rwanda, Shooting Dogs and Sometimes in April
This paper explains the construction of ethnic and national difference using physical traits and the national identity card in selected films. It argues that identity is a fluid construct that is manipulated for different ends. This study was guided by tenets of the theory of nationalism: primordialism; instrumentalism and constructivism by Ernest Gellner (1964) and structuralist film theory by Leo Kuleshov (1920).The study arrived at the following findings: Through primordialism, the study found out that the Hutu construct their nation using physical traits and the national identity card. Nevertheless, the study concluded that identity is a fluid construct that keeps refashioning in different contexts as seen in the border crossings in the films where Hutu characters cross their ethnic borders and protect the Tutsi during the genocide.
Haperen, V.M (2013).The Holocaust and Other Genocides; an introduction Barbara Boender ; The Rwandan genocide, 1994-2012.
Kebaya, Charles & Wanjala Henry (2016) Popular Music and Identity Formation among Kenyan Youth. Muziki: Journal of Music Research in Africa, Vol.13, Issue 2, 20-35.
Lewis, B. (1996) Gates Jr (Ed).The Crows of the Arabs. Race. In H.L Gates Jr. (Ed) Race, Writing and Difference University of Chicago Press. (pp., 21-37).
Prunier, G. (1997).The Rwanda Crisis: History of Genocide 1959-1994.London: Hurst and Company, 5-7.
Saunders, M, Lewis, P &Thornhill, A. (2012).Research Methods for Business Students. 6thEdition. Pearson Education Limited.
Todorov, T. (1986).Race, Writing and Culture in Race, Writing and Difference. In H.L.Gates Jr (Eds). Race, Writing and Difference. University of Chicago Press. (pp. 370-380).
Totten, S. (1997). Century of Genocide: Eye witness Accounts and Critical Views. (PhD Thesis). New York: Garland Publishers.
Uvin, P. (1997). Prejudice, Crisis and Genocide in Rwanda. African Studies Review, Vol 40, no2pp91-115 Cambridge University Press.
Uvin, P. (1999).Ethnicity and Power in Burundi and Rwanda: Different Paths to Mass violence. Comparative politics. Vol.31. .pp253-271.
White, R.K.(2009).Scourge of Racism: Genocide in Rwanda. Journal of Black Studies.Vol.39, No 3. pp471-481 Sage Publications, Inc. Stable URL:Attps://www.jstor.org/stable 40 28 2573..Accessed 07-10-2018.13.38
How to Cite
This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY-NC-SA) license.
You are free to: Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.
Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.
Under the following terms:
Attribution — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
Most read articles by the same author(s)
- Amos Mochama, George Obara Nyandoro, Christopher Okemwa, The Role of Soundtrack in Audio-Visual Advertisements: A Case of Coca-Cola Commercials , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 3 No. 4 (2019)
- John Mugubi, William Mureithi Maina, Concomitants of socio-cultural exigencies on narrative preferences in the Kenyan “Riverwood” film , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 1 (2017)
- Robert Wesonga, John Mugubi, Things Fall Apart back to the Owners: Adapting Achebe’s Text to Film for the Igbo Populace , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 9 (2017)
- Anne Mungai, John Mugubi, Narratives of Rectitude and Extremist Ideology in Selected Kenyan Feature Films , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 10 (2017)
- Lencer Achieng’ Ndede, Simon Peter Otieno, Miriam Musonye, From the Snows of Kilimanjaro to Nairobi Half Life: Over 50 years of film in Kenya , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 5 (2017)
- Eliud Situma, John Mugubi, Utilization of films as Wellsprings of Succour, Edification and Repose for Psychologically Lacerated Persons: An Exploratory Study , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 10 (2017)
- Lencer Achieng’ Ndede, The Paradox of Pain in Tosh Gitonga’s Nairobi Half Life , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 4 (2017)
- Audace Mbonyingingo, Christopher Joseph Odhiambo, Peter Tirop Simatei, Imaginaries of a Post-Colonial Cameroon Nation in Bole Butake’s Family Saga and Bate Besong’s Beasts of no Nation , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 1 No. 3 (2017)
- Bichang’a Sospeter Okero, George Nyandoro Obara, Charles Kebaya, Representation of the Big Man Typology in The Rise and Fall of Idi Amin , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 3 No. 4 (2019)
- Rosemary Murundu, Peter Simatei, Helen Shigali, Colonial Subjugation and Power Appropriation in Yvonne Vera’s Works , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 3 No. 3 (2019)
- Eunice Kerubo Samwel, George Obara Nyandoro, Margaret Barasa, Cinematographic Presentation of Digitized Audio-Visual Folkloric Performance Features: A Case Study of Tinga Tinga Tales , Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences: Vol. 3 No. 4 (2019)
You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.