The Elusiveness of Inclusive Education in Kenya



Barriers, Inclusion, Kenya, Learners with Special Needs


Notably, research effort on education of persons with disabilities has been expended on primary and secondary education. However, research on barriers to inclusion of learners with disabilities has not been adequately explored in Kenya.  To fill this gap, a descriptive survey was utilised to address the objectives of the study which included: determining socio-cultural, curriculum, economic, physical and structural barriers to inclusion. The sample consisted of 22 teachers, one head teacher and 6 parents. The sample was drawn from a regular primary school with a special unit that caters for learners with intellectual disability in Kakamega County, Kenya. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were utilised to select the sample. Findings revealed that the barriers were socio-cultural (stigma, opposition from parents, lack of awareness of the importance/benefits of inclusion), curriculum (lack of learning resources, lack/poor syllabi adaptations and shortage of trained teachers) physical/ structural (lack of support employees, absence of structural modifications in the school environment) and economic. It was thus, recommended that the government conducts awareness programmes targeting parents on the benefits of inclusion and develop an adopted curriculum/syllabus that would be responsive to the needs of learners with disabilities among others. 


Download data is not yet available.

Achola, P. (2004). Access, Equity and Efficiency in Kenyan Public schools. Nairobi: Lyceum Educational Consultants.

Ajayi, K. (1996). The African Experience with Higher Education. London: James Curry Ltd.

Alemna, A. (2004) Library Provision for the Blind. New York: the Haworth Press

Alwell, M and Cobb, B (2006) Teaching Functional Life Skills To The Youth With Disabilities, Department of Special Education and child Development 9201 University City Blvd,Unc Charlotte,NSTTC.

Eden, K. & Flame, L. (1999). Disability and Response. United Kingdom: Marsden Group.

Government of Kenya (GoK, 2015).

International Labour Organisation (ILO, 2004:9).

Ministry of Education. (2013). Essential Examination Statistics during the Realese of KCSE examination.

Musoma, K. 2006). Youth with disabilities; disability in Studies the African Context. Toronto: Bel Ltd.

Mutisya, B. (2012), Disability and Marginalisation in Kenyan school. Hethel Park: USA

Karanja, M. 2013. Inclusive socities? A critical analysis of disability variables. Tewin: MN

Kenya Society for the Blind. (2006). Newsletter, issue 1.

Persons with disabilities Act (2003)

UNHCR (2008).The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD)

Ministry of Education. (2008). Essential KCSE Examination Statistics during the release of 2008 KCSE examination

Smith et al 2001, Kirk 2003) Transition to college. Journal of Education 72, 85-87.

The Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS, 2010)

Vancil, D. (2001). Steps to Success in College for students With Visual Impairments Living Skills Centre for the Visually Impaired, 138- San Pablo Avenue, San Pablo, and CA 94806.

Songe, O. (2006). Curriculum Barriers to Successful Inclusion of Students with Visual Impairments in Kenya Polytechnic. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Kenyatta University

Orangah (2012). Transition of learners with visual impairments to public universities in Kenya, a Case of Kenyatta university. Unpublished Masters-Thesis, Kenyatta University

Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (2014), KNCHR

Kanake, L. (2001). Gender Disparities among the Academic Staff in Kenyan Universities. Nairobi: Ed Consultants.

Kirk et. al (2003): Disabilities in Developing Nations Ham. New Jersey.



How to Cite

Oranga, J., & Gaungying, D. (2019). The Elusiveness of Inclusive Education in Kenya. Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(1).