Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences</strong> is a peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal that publishes empirical and theoretical research papers in the fields of humanities and social sciences such as anthropology, business studies, communication studies, cultural studies, development studies, economics, education, film studies, geography, history, information science, linguistics, literature, library studies, media studies, philosophy, psychology, sociology, performing arts (music, theatre &amp; dance), religious studies, visual arts, and women studies among others.&nbsp;</p> Royallite Global en-US Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences 2520-4009 <p class="copyright-statement" style="text-align: justify;">This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution <strong>(CC-BY-NC-SA)</strong> license.</p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>You are free to:</strong> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.</p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Attribution</em></strong> — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>No additional restrictions</strong></em> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> The victim's perspective of the interventions to address the spike in gender-based violence during the COVID-19 pandemic in Kakamega Central Sub-County, Kenya <p>The Covid-19 pandemic has led to a significant rise in gender-based violence (GBV) cases globally, necessitating targeted intervention measures. Despite efforts by governments and stakeholders, this study focuses on Kakamega Central Sub-County, Kenya, to examine whether the interventions put in place to address the GBV surge during the pandemic considered the perspectives and needs of victims. Employing the Intersectionality Theory, which explores how various forms of oppression intersect, leading to unique experiences of disadvantage, this research investigates why victims' voices may have been marginalized in intervention strategies. Using a mixed-method research design, the study involves 255 participants and 27 key informants, utilizing questionnaires, interviews, and secondary data sources. Quantitative data were analyzed using cross-tabulation and summary statistics, while qualitative data were analyzed thematically using content analysis. The reliability of the research instruments was assessed using the test-retest method, which revealed a Cronbach's alpha index of reliability exceeding 0.70 for all variables. Validity was ensured through a review of questionnaires and interview schedules to align them with the study's objectives and research variables. Findings reveal that victims perceived the interventions as inadequate and not tailored to their individual needs. Consequently, this study recommends the development of GBV intervention measures that are more responsive to the diverse and unique needs of victims, aiming to reduce GBV incidents and address root causes effectively.</p> Jacob Kipkoech Meli Mark Letting Thomas Gisemba Onsarigo Copyright (c) 2023 Jacob Kipkoech Meli, Mark Letting, Thomas Gisemba Onsarigo 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i2.1308 Forms of multimodal approaches in the teaching of listening and speaking skills <p>This study sought to explore the factors that determine the teachers of English’s choice of multimodal approaches when teaching listening and speaking skills to Kenya’s Grade 1 learners. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive research design with quantitative and qualitative paradigms. Primary data was sourced from 75 public and private primary schools in Western Kenya. Stratified sampling was employed to identify teachers of English and 7 Curriculum Support Officers (CSO’S in the area). This was to ensure that the population was grouped into homogenous subsets that bore similar characteristics. Questionnaires, observation schedule and Key Informant Interview (KII) were used to elicit data. Validity of research instruments was determined through two expert judgements whereas their reliability was determined through Cronbach’s alpha formula. Descriptive statistics was applied to analyse quantitative data. Content analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The findings of this study revealed that factors considered while selecting multimodal approaches are significant in the success of teaching of listening and speaking skills. The study recommends that teachers of English should be trained on the most desirable factors that they should consider when selecting multimodal approaches to use in the teaching of listening and speaking skills. Further, the study has attempted to design a teaching and learning model that will guide the teachers of English in the selection of appropriate approaches to blend when teaching listening and speaking skills. This model will guide teachers of English in the inclusion multimodal approaches from all categories.</p> Rose Masinde David Barasa Lucy Mandillah Copyright (c) 2023 Rose Masinde, David Barasa, Lucy Mandillah 2023-08-01 2023-08-01 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i2.1255 Effect of talent management practices and employee engagement on perceived sustainable competitive advantage of commercial banks in Nairobi County, Kenya <p>In the modern world, organizations strive to achieve success in form of sustainable competitive advantage. The demand for key position talented and committed employees is high because they help steer the organization to outdo the competition in the marketplace. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of talent management practices and employee engagement on perceived sustainable competitive advantage of commercial banks in Nairobi County in Kenya. Guided by resource based view theory, positivism research paradigm and explanatory research design was adopted. The target population was 3,098 employees from 42 commercial banks whereby a sample size of 354 was used. After collecting data using structured self-administered questionnaire, analysis done comprised of descriptive, correlation, factor analysis and hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results showed a positive and significant effect of talent management practices (β=.727, p =.030&lt;.05) and employee engagement (β=.302, p=.029&lt;.05) on perceived sustainable competitive advantage of commercial banks in Nairobi County. The study concluded that quality level of employees' engagement, and talent management practices enhances the perceived sustainable competitive advantages in various similar working environments and society's confidence in the organization. Managers should make efforts to increase employees' perceived organizational fairness to improve their competitiveness. As a result, managers are encouraged to take a deliberate effort to promote talent management practices and employee engagement . Future researchers are expected to focus on firms in other sectors besides assessing the effect of generation Y and generation Z on talent management practices and sustainable competitive advantage.</p> Stephen Makewit Mosong Joyce Komen Josephat Cheboi Copyright (c) 2023 Stephen Makewit Mosong, Joyce Komen, Josephat Cheboi 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i1.1104 Linguistic strategies in the construction of power relations in call-in conversations in Vuuka FM vernacular radio station <p>This paper examines how language is used to enact power and identity as manifested n caller’s texts in Vuuka FM radio station, a vernacular radio station broadcasts in Luloogoli. This paper seeks to respond to the following objective, to determine the power relations manifested in the call in conversations of Vuuka FM radio station. This study was carried out in Vihiga County in Western Kenya among the Lulogooli speakers. Fairclough’s (2001) Critical Discourse Analysis approach , whose main tenet is a critical analysis of caller texts in terms of the manifestations of power relations, was used for the analysis of caller conversations. A qualitative approach to data collection was adopted where a total of <br />thirty call-in programmes were purposively sampled for transcription and analysis according to the thematic areas that were selected. The paper established that there was manifestation of power relations in the conversations of callers that creates two divergent groupings, ‘them ’the subjugated group, versus ‘us’ the dominant group. Furthermore, callers through their discourses manifested distinct ideologies depending on the roles assigned to the different groupings in society. The findings of this paper would be of help to linguists and other language scholars in that it would contribute to the development of research on the use of indigenous languages.</p> Catherine Musimbi Musimbi Alati R Atichi Lucy Mandilla Copyright (c) 2023 Catherine Musimbi Musimbi, Alati R Atichi, Lucy Mandilla 2023-03-25 2023-03-25 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i1.1087 Validating the psychometric properties of the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 <p>Anxiety is a recognized negative activated emotion characterized by constant worry and uncertainty of a situation or outcome. Although worrying may be an everyday activity, excessive and frequent traits can impair academic functioning. The study thus aimed to validate the psychometric properties of the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 among a non-clinical sample of visual art students and ascertain their existent level of anxiety. Using a cross-sectional survey design, a hundred and fifty visual arts students from KNUST senior high school, Ghana, completed a questionnaire containing the anxiety subscale of the DASS-21 and some demographic details. Analysis was done using JAMOVI. It was revealed that more than two-thirds of the sample fell within the ratings of moderate anxiety level to extremely severe anxiety. Besides, female visual arts students reportedly had a slightly higher anxiety level (m= 16.4, SD=9.07) than their male counterparts m=12.7, SD= 8.86) using the mean figures of the total anxiety score. The anxiety subscale had commendable psychometric properties and its reliability and ease of administering will enhance the diagnoses and research on anxiety among senior high school students in Ghana.</p> Ama Amponsah Dwamena Mavis Osei Copyright (c) 2023 Ama Amponsah Dwamena, Mavis Osei 2023-08-03 2023-08-03 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i2.1258 Meaning loss in English-Lubukusu medical interpretation <p>Language is a vital component in doctor-patient communication. The linguistic differences between languages make medical interpretation difficult. Thus, in situations where a doctor and a patient have no common language, interpretation is essential for successful exchange of meaning. Lubukusu, the language spoken by monolingual Bukusu patients and English, the language spoken by the non-native doctors, have huge linguistic differences that make it difficult for interpreters to achieve the required level of equivalence. English has unique scientific terms that have no equivalents in Lubukusu. These difficulties in interpretation may lead to loss of source language meaning and inadequate or inaccurate diagnosis that may endanger the patient’s life and the doctor’s integrity. The study was guided by the Pragmatic Model of Simultaneous interpretation<em>. This study established that meaning loss is inevitable whenever the interpreters in medical consultations fail to find English equivalents in Lubukusu and the attempt to interpret by explicitation does not suffice. </em>This paper informs health practitioners on ways of ensuring the best outcome of consultation sessions between non-native doctors and monolingual natives. This paper suggests ways of improving&nbsp; communication between doctors who do not share a language with both their patients and fellow doctors<em>.</em></p> Mary Nasambu Masika David Barasa Benard Mudogo Copyright (c) 2023 Mary Nasambu Masika, David Barasa, Benard Mudogo 2023-05-27 2023-05-27 7 2 22 34 10.58256/njhs.v7i2.1114 Gender inclusion in research among academic members of staff: Lessons from Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, Kenya <p>All over the world, research has shown that women are underrepresented and generally face discrimination and marginalization on the basis of their gender. It is against this background that this study sought to establish the status of gender inclusion in research among academic members of staff with a focus on Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology (MMUST), Kenya. The study employed a mixed methods research design. Purposive sampling technique was used in administering questionnaires to <strong>104</strong> academic staff from the 11 schools and interviews subjected to <strong>14</strong> members of the university management. Quantitative data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics while qualitative data was analyzed thematically and was used to triangulate quantitative data. The findings of the study revealed that research outputs for women were lower than their male counterparts. For example, males were more dominant in publications at 55% while females were at 45%. The study further revealed that workload, gender stereotypes, lack of mentorship and inadequate resources had an impact on the women’s research output. These findings will be instrumental in supporting universities to strengthen structures and develop programmes that support research, particularly among women at all levels of their career.</p> Lucy Mandillah Annette Okoth Pamela Buhere Lydia Anyonje Christine Wanjala James Bill Ouda Judith Achoka Copyright (c) 2023 Lucy Mandillah, Annette Okoth, Pamela Buhere, Lydia Anyonje, Christine Wanjala, James Bill Ouda, Judith Achoka 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 7 2 10.58256/njhs.v7i2.1094