Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Nairobi Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences</strong> is a peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal that publishes empirical and theoretical research papers in the fields of humanities and social sciences such as anthropology, business studies, communication studies, cultural studies, development studies, economics, education, film studies, geography, history, information science, linguistics, literature, library studies, media studies, philosophy, psychology, sociology, performing arts (music, theatre &amp; dance), religious studies, visual arts, and women studies among others.&nbsp;</p> en-US <p class="copyright-statement" style="text-align: justify;">This open-access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution <strong>(CC-BY-NC-SA)</strong> license.</p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>You are free to:</strong> Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.</p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Adapt</strong> — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially. The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Under the following terms:</strong> </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><strong><em>Attribution</em></strong> — You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. </p> <p class="licensing" style="text-align: justify;"><em><strong>No additional restrictions</strong></em> You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.</p> (Managing Editor) (Royallite Publishers Limited) Tue, 08 Nov 2022 16:27:09 +0000 OJS 60 (Im)politeness studies of selected 2015 political campaign hate speeches in Nigeria <p>The work examined hate speech in context of political campaign discourse, using an aspect of Brown and Levinson’s politeness model of Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) and Culpeper’s impoliteness model to appraise eight purposively selected 2015 campaign speeches of politicians from the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) and the All Progressive Congress (APC) of Nigeria. The data constitute eight transcribed 2015 political campaign extracts, from notable Nigerian on-line newspapers, found to contain hate speeches. Political campaigns in Nigeria, in recent times, have witnessed an increase in the use of hate speech and searing language. This has become the motivation for this study since hate electioneering campaign may portend incitement, violence and face loss for the parties involved. The result of the study showed that hate speech during political campaigns is embedded in impoliteness strategies targeted at the rival political players and translates to the electorate as face threatening acts, as they become the indirect victims of the forcefulness of such speech acts. Whereas negative politeness FTAs of advice, warnings, and reminding a hearer to do an act were mostly employed by political speakers to coerce the electorate for their votes; negative impoliteness strategies such as, ridicule, frighten and off-record impoliteness strategy of unpleasant implicatures were deployed to flaw, threaten and disrepute political rivals. Thus, hate speech in political campaigns is typified by a preponderance of impoliteness strategies and FTAs recurring throughout such speeches without redress, emphasizing the deliberation of such speech acts.</p> Onyinyechi Blessing Udoumoh, Onyebuchi Florence Orabueze Copyright (c) 2022 Onyinyechi Blessing Udoumoh, Onyebuchi Florence Orabueze Tue, 06 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Reimagining identities through orality: Political songs among the Borana of Northern Kenya during the 1960s political party formations <p>This paper is a reading of the political events and discourses around nationalism using orality at the eve of Kenya’s independence during which period the people of Northern Kenya were confronted with the quest(ion) of belongingness to two African countries, namely Somalia and Kenya. On the one hand, their Kenyanness was determined and framed by the colonial border which disregarded ethnic, religious and cultural affiliation of the people. On the other hand, their gravitation towards Somalia was predicated upon assumed notions of cultural affinity and shared religious beliefs. While the Somali from Kenya wanted to secede in toto, the Borana on the contrary were divided, some chose Kenya over Somalia in a show of patriotic national consciousness as shown in the song they composed for this purpose. The employment of song performances is a site of individual and communal reflection. The very instruments of unification such as religion used by the Somali to legitimize their claim are contested by singers who invoke alternative paradigm of religions from the Islamic one. A fresh dimension of identity formulation emerges. People disregard ways in which they have been imagined and categorized as Muslim, Somali or Cushitic, to instead reimagine themselves as Borana, Oromo and Kenyan. The paper argues that the Kenyan Borana had a collective desire to be part of the other non-Somali Kenyans even though they were religiously and ethnically different from them. The song is used as sites of contestation that envoice the rejection of Somali nationalism and reaffirmation of their belongingness and loyalty to the Kenyan nation.</p> Fugich Wako Copyright (c) 2022 Fugich Wako Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the relationship between psychological empowerment and commitment in selected star rated Hotels in Kisumu City, Kenya <p>This study sought to assess the relationship between psychological empowerment and commitment in selected star rated Hotels in Kisumu City, Kenya. It adopted both descriptive and explanatory research designs. 1372 employees and 130 managers from 34 star-rated hotels made up the target population. Thirty-one non-managerial employees and thirteen management personnel made up the study’s sample. Random and stratified sampling was used to select the respondents. Surveys and interviews were used to gather data. Expert judgment was used to assess the validity of the questionnaires. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. In addition to this, inferential statistics included linear regression and hierarchical multiple regression, whereas descriptive statistics include things like mean, frequency, and standard deviation. According to the findings, psychological empowerment and commitment to perform their duties in certain star-rated hotels have a substantial positive link. The study found that employee involvement in particular hotels was influenced by psychological empowerment and commitment. Employees should be able to utilize their own principles and standards to accomplish organizational objectives.</p> Lucy Jumah, Rita Nthiga Copyright (c) 2022 Lucy Jumah, Rita Nthiga Mon, 21 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges in the implementation of the Zimbabwe Junior School Visual & Performing Arts Syllabus in Mwenezi District, Masvingo Province <p>The purpose of the study was to find out the challenges encountered by primary school teachers in implementing the Zimbabwe Junior Visual and Performing Arts Syllabus in Mwenezi District, Masvingo Province. Primarily, the aim was to determine the primary school teachers' lived experiences and views on critical challenges of implementing the country's updated syllabus. It was a descriptive survey design in which focus group interviews and an observation checklist were used to collect data, which were then thematically analysed. The sample comprised thirty participants (14 females, 16 males) from ten schools of Mwenezi district. The study targeted teachers only because they were the key implementers of the syllabus. Research findings revealed that the main challenges were lack of infrastructure, instructional resources, training, as well as poor timing of the programme. The most itching challenge was negative attitude by teachers, towards the syllabus. Those issues inevitably resulted in dismal implementation of the Visual and Performing Arts Syllabus in schools. In view of the results which emerged, the study recommends that the government could avail resources to schools, to enable teachers effectively implement the syllabus.</p> Martison Nhamo Copyright (c) 2022 Martison Nhamo Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 LITERARY ETYMOLOGIES OF THE EWE NAMES OF SOME PUNCTUATION MARKS <p>This study investigates literary etymologies of the Ewe names of punctuation marks and their significance to the teaching and learning of punctuation in Ewe. Employing the theory of literary etymology which outlines nine criteria through which a name can be studied, the Ewe names for <em>fullstop</em>, <em>comma</em>, <em>colon</em>, <em>semicolon</em>, <em>question mark</em>, <em>exclamation mark</em> and <em>quotation marks</em> were investigated. Findings reveal pertinent information behind each one of the Ewe names of these punctuation marks. For example, the Ewe names for <em>fullstop</em>, <em>comma</em> and <em>semicolon</em> have behind them a metaphorical journey one undertakes, where one comes to a complete halt in a fullstop; where one takes a breather in a comma; and a long rest in a semicolon. This study has implications for the teaching and learning of punctuation in Ewe in that in-depth information behind the names of the punctuation marks would enhance the teaching and learning of the topic of punctuation in Ewe.&nbsp; Besides, the names of punctuation marks in other languages could reveal idiosyncrasies that may corroborate or contest the present study and may propel the knowledge of punctuation marks to new heights.</p> Cosmas Rai Amenorvi, Benjamin Kubi Copyright (c) 2022 Cosmas Rai Amenorvi, Benjamin Kubi Tue, 08 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000