Research Journal in Medical and Health Sciences 2023-01-20T19:24:54+00:00 Prof. Tom J. Webster Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;">Research Journal in Medical and Health Sciences (RJMHS), is a peer-reviewed quarterly open access journal. The journal publishes experimental, translational and clinical approaches across all areas of biomedical sciences and clinical research and practice. primary objective to provide research and applications related to Medical &amp; Health Sciences. The Research Journal of Medical &amp; Health Sciences (RJMHS) aims to publish original research work that contributes significantly to enhance the scientific knowledge in Medical Sciences. </p> Challenges and solutions of immunization safety surveillance in Assosa Zone, Ethiopia: Mixed methods 2022-12-25T13:18:18+00:00 Muluken Asres Alemu TMM Maja <h4><strong>Abstract </strong></h4> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Background</strong>: Adverse Events Following Immunizations (AEFIs) reporting has increased over the past sixteen years worldwide, and requires strengthening in majority of Low Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) including Ethiopia. Additional efforts are needed to ensure and improve data quality, AEFI reporting and surveillance of immunisation safety in every country. Immunisation Safety Surveillance (ISS) is vital to identify AEFIs.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> to assess challenges and solutions of immunisation safety surveillance in Assosa zone, Ethiopia,</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Health facility based parallel convergent quantitative and qualitative data collected from 300 and nine respondents respectively.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>Only 14 (4.7%) respondents had ever reported AEFI case to a higher level and 69 (23%) ever treated it. All the zone and woreda level experts mentioned the performance related immunization safety surveillance is very minimal. The major challenges stated by respondents were; in-availability or denial of AEFI case presence (60%), no clarity on how to do immunisation safety surveillance (22%), no standard reporting forms (20.7%), thinking AEFI is mild problem which could resolve by itself or care takers could manage it at home (14.6%), there is no road and electricity access (9.3%), and health care providers has the ability to treat the case at health facility level (8.3%). Similarly, the in-depth interview participants mentioned that the performance related to immunisation safety surveillance was minimal due to poor infrastructure, lack of adequate information about AEFI, absence of proper AEFI reporting system; no training for AEFI, community members are not informed to report AEFI and experience of home treatment for mild cases. A total of 40 possible solutions to improve AEFI surveillance were proposed from one time to 185 times. The first five top solutions were; Providing&nbsp;&nbsp; training for health care workers (185), Sharing information or Create Awareness (129), Provide training for Health Development Armies or involve HDAs (100), Strengthening supervision (76), and Avail supplies (drugs, manpower, kits) for AEFI reporting (75)</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:&nbsp; the major obstacles for immunization safety surveillance were; lack of clarity on how to report, lack of attention from higher bodies, lack of ownership for the work and unavailability of reporting formats. The responsible bodies need to solve the existing challenges in line with the proposed solutions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muluken Asres Alemu, TMM Maja Anthelmintic and Drug Resistance in Ruminants 2023-01-08T12:29:14+00:00 Yagoob Garedaghi <p>The chemical compounds include various groups such as Benzimidazoles, Imidazothiazoles, Tetrahydropyrimidines, Salicylanides, Piperazines, Ivermectins, etc. These drugs should be used properly to get the desired results, worms be controlled and drug resistance against worms is reduced to a minimum.</p> 2023-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yagoob Garedaghi The association of household socioeconomic status, neighbourhood support system and adherence to cardiovascular fitness among persons with diabetes mellitus in Ghana a hospital-based cross-sectional study 2023-01-08T12:30:01+00:00 Dominic Doglikuu <p>Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk-factor for cardiovascular diseases, and Physical Activities (PA) is known to reverse this risk-factor. However, some human attributes could influence adherence to PAs. This study therefore, investigates the association of household-socioeconomic-status (SES), neighborhood-support-system and adherence to PAs among persons with DM in Ghana. Facility-based cross-sectional-study was conducted among 530 T2DM patients in Ghana. Structured-questionnaires were used to collect socio-demographic, anthropometric, and clinical variables. SES was assessed using composite-wealth index and adherence to PAs was assessed using WHO PA-short form questionnaires. SPSS version-22 was used to analyse the data.</p> <p>At the end of the study, we found significant mean difference in low (P = 0.010) and high (P = 0.0001) social supports according to residential status. After we adjusted for age and diabetes duration, High-SES (quintile 3) Adjusted Odd Ratio (AOR) =0.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) (0.22, 0.07), Moderate-SES (quintile 3), AOR=3.16, 95%CI (1.01, 9.89) and High-social support system (quintile 2) AOR =3.29, 95%CI (1.02, 10.58) were significantly associated for adherence to PA. Low-SES (quintile 3) AOR= 3.52, 95%CI (1.44, 8.59) and low social support system (quintile 1) AOR=1.05, 95%CI (1.05, 1.09) were significant for adherence to sedentary-lifestyle. This study therefore concludes that SES, and Social-support systems maybe associated with adherence to PA. Clinicians should prioritized these variables as modifiable-factors in diseases preventions and health promotion</p> 2023-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Dominic Doglikuu The relationship between screen time and overweight/obesity among adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2022-12-20T13:13:06+00:00 Wubetsh Asnake Bilal Shikur Endris Muluken Gizaw <p>The study aimed to ascertain how screen time and adolescent overweight/obesity relate to one another. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted among adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The sample size was calculated using the single population proportion formula, and the final sample size was 550. Data was collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. SPSS software version 20 was used to perform descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis, and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The study found that the mean screen time in the study population was 4.12.2 hrs. per day, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 12.3% and 1.85%, respectively. Female sex, high socio-economic status, high screen time, eating habits while watching TV, and physical activity were found to have a significant association with overweight/obesity. This study demonstrated a 53.7% prevalence of screen time above the recommended amount and a positive association between longer periods of screen time and overweight/obesity among adolescents in Addis Ababa. Parents and adolescents should be aware of this association and encouraged to involve their children in other forms of recreational activity.</p> 2023-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Wubetsh Asnake Surface colonization when exposed to medical grade (Manuka) honey alone or in combination with other disinfectants 2023-01-20T19:24:54+00:00 Ethan Walsey Thomas J. Webster <p>This study explored the use of medical grade (Manuka) honey as a surface disinfectant for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The killing mechanism of this honey is almost entirely due to the presence and activity of methylglyoxal, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species producing agents. To enhance the activity of Manuka, this study further added porphyrins, or light activated chemicals that produce reactive oxygen species. Results of this in vitro study showed that after 24 hours, a solution with 1mL of 1% Manuka honey reduced MRSA colonization by 1 log when seeded at a starting concentration of 108 colony forming units (CFU/mL) of MRSA. Similar results were found when this Manuka honey was paired with: 1) 1mL of a 1% v/v isopropyl alcohol solution, 2) 1mL of a 1% v/v isopropyl alcohol + 1mL of a porphyrin solution (0.01mg/mL Zn porphyrin solution), and 3) 1mL of 100mg of citric acid added to the solution that contained Manuka honey, isopropyl alcohol, and the porphyrin solution. All formulations with Manuka honey demonstrated antibacterial behavior. Moreover, it should be noted that all samples, between Manuka honey alone, Manuka in addition to isopropyl alcohol, Manuka in addition to isopropyl alcohol and porphyrins, and Manuka + isopropyl alcohol + porphyrins + citric acid were all deemed stable (after heat assays) at durations of one hour, one day, and one week. In this manner, the present study indicates that Manuka honey could be a suitable, safe, environmentally friendly, and effective MRSA disinfectant for everyday household use and should be further investigated either as a stand alone disinfectant or in combination with other disinfectants.</p> 2023-01-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ethan Walsey, Thomas J. Webster Minimum dietary diversity and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in government health facilities of Soro district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia 2022-12-22T13:01:21+00:00 Tegegn Tadesse Lonsako Abute Dewit Sulamo Mengistu Handiso Lire Lema Abera Beyamo Belay Erchafo <p><strong>Background:</strong> This study sought to determine the prevalence of minimum dietary diversity and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in government health facilities of Soro district, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a facility-based study conducted in government health facilities of Soro district, Hadiya Zone, Ethiopia from Oct. 2020-Jan, 2021. Cross sectional study design was undertaken by using systematic sampling on 422 pregnant women attending antenatal care. Both bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to assess the association of independent variables with outcome variable.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From the total of 422 study subjects, 416 pregnant women attending antenatal care were participated in the study and making the response rate 98.6 percent. The overall prevalence of pregnant mothers who have met the minimum dietary diversity was only 7.9%. Maternal educational status being grade nine and above, eating meal more than three times per day and women being currently not married were found to be significantly associated with achieving the minimum dietary diversity among pregnant mothers.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The prevalence of the minimum dietary diversity among pregnant women attending ANC in public health facilities of Soro district was very low and far from national and international recommendations to enhance the maternal food diversity. Inter-sectoral collaboration is very important to increase the coverage and level of the maternal education. Moreover, health workers should strengthen the channel of counseling pregnant mothers during the antenatal care visit sessions and design an appropriate way to address their partners to enhance maternal adequate meal frequency and dietary diversity. </p> 2023-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Tegegn Arficho, Lonsako Abute, Dewit Sulamo, Dewit Sulamo, Mengistu Handiso, Lire Lema, Abera Beyamo, Belay Erchafo Prevalence of food taboo during pregnancy in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis 2023-01-08T12:29:37+00:00 Shiferaw Gelchu Adola Dessalegn Wirtu Biftu Geda Dawit Galgalo <p>Back Ground: Food taboos influence intake of vital nutrients which required for optimal maternal health and fetal development during pregnancy. Pregnancy is the most delicate stage of human life and targets of food taboos. Even though there are fewer studies conducted on food taboos during pregnancy, there is no pooled estimate among pregnant women in Ethiopia. The smaller studies reported the different prevalence of food taboos which were difficult to help health planning at a national level. Thus, this study was expected to provide a pooled prevalence of pregnancy related food taboos in Ethiopia. <br>Methods: The relevant studies were identified by manual and electronic data base searching method. Important information from the original studies was presented in a table and the quantitative results were presented in the forest plots. The Cochrane Q test and I2 test statistic were used to test heterogeneity across studies. The Pooled estimate of prevalence of food taboo was computed by a random effects model. <br>Results: 175 articles were identified; nine studies meet inclusion criteria. A random effect meta-analysis of the results from these nine studies was carried out to provide pooled prevalence of food taboo during pregnancy. Analysis showed, the pooled prevalence of food taboo among pregnant women in Ethiopia was 38.50 (95% CI = 24.33-52.67); a significant heterogeneity was observed among studies (I2 = 99%, p value &lt;0.001). Subgroup analysis shows the highest prevalence of food taboo found in Somali region 67.38% and the lowest prevalence seen in Tigray 11.45% region. <br>Conclusion: This review found pooled estimate of food taboo during pregnancy in Ethiopia. Variation in the magnitude of pregnancy related food restriction was seen across the regions. Therefore, integrating nutrition education with the basic antenatal care program was recommended in all regions of Ethiopia to prevent nutritional deficiencies associated with food taboo.</p> 2023-01-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Shiferaw Gelchu Adola Road traffic accident risk indicators among traumatized patients visiting emergency outpatient clinics in public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia 2022-12-20T15:18:56+00:00 Eyob Hailu Zewedu Shewangizawe Ewenetu Tesema Abdulnasir Abagero <p>This study sought to assess the magnitude and factors associated with road traffic accidents among traumatized patients attending at emergency outpatient departments of public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Facility-based cross-sectional study design was employed on 381 samples. All traumatized patients who attend at emergency department of public hospitals in Addis Ababa city was population of the study. Systematic random sampling technique were employed to select study unites. The data was entered and cleaned by Epi-info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 23.0 and presented using tables and figures. A total of 373 samples were collected in the study and the most of samples were in the 30–40 years of age range. The magnitude of the road traffic accident was 57.1%. Most of the study participant (64.83%) were male and the maximum age was 79 with a mean of age is (+/- 34 years) responders. Road traffic accident is more prevalence among the most productive and economically active age group. Being Females are 0.48 times higher protective for RTA than Males. Occupation (driver) 5.3 times higher risk to road traffic accident than students, weather condition(cloudy) 0.4 times protective than sunny for RTA and driving at a day time 2.1 times higher risk for RTA than at night. Improve the traffic system and community-based awareness creation could decrease the incident of car accident.</p> 2023-01-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Eyob Hailu Determinant of time to default from treatment during treatment period of congestive heart failure patients in case of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia 2022-12-20T12:53:16+00:00 Berhanie Addis <p><strong>Background</strong>: Like all other organs the Heart is susceptible to disease. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors that affect time-to default from treatment of congestive heart failure patients at Felege- Hiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> A retrospective study design was conducted on congestive heart failure patients selected by inclusion and exclusion criteria at FHRH under a follow-up period from January 1<sup>st</sup> 2016 to December 31<sup>th</sup> 2019. Cox-Proportional hazard model for survival part time to default were used to identify factors that affect the time to default from the hospital.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: On the New York Heart Association Classification (NYHAC), 5.2% of the patients were class I and 14.9%, 36.1%, and 43.7% were found in classes II, III, and IV respectively. Patients with co morbidities like anaemia, pneumonia, chronic kidney disease were less likely to default as compared to patients without co morbidities. Patients’ New York Heart Association Class, Marital Status, Hypertension status of patients and TB co-infected status of CHF patients were found to be significant determinants of time to default.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>the variable NYHAC, TB co-infected status and LVEF were common factors for time to default of CHF patients. The risk of defaulting for TB co-infected patients were higher as compared to non-TB co-infected patients with HR=8.24. Hence in hospital health professionals should be needed give special attention to the patients who had the co-morbidity disease. And government should allocate appropriate budget to hospital for hospitalization of CHF patients for the long time until recovery.</p> 2023-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Berhanie Addis